An unrivalled line-up of speakers come together at HowTheLightGetsIn May 2021. From humanity-saving spearheaders, to pioneering, mystery-uncovering and million-dollar-prize-winning scientists, to internationally esteemed politicians and journalists, they are at the top of their fields.
Our exceptional speakers will grapple with the defining questions of our times. From Alive in the Universe, to The Madness of Therapy, to Fantasy and Reality and many, many, more this festival will be one to remember.
“We have to make a society that works for the majority of people, not the extremely motivated ones."
Esther Duflo is a Nobel prize-winning economist who developed an experimental, innovative approach to ending global poverty through meticulously designed field experiments. Duflo is Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at MIT and founder of the hugely influential Adbul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab.
Her groundbreaking research focuses on microeconomic issues in poverty-stricken countries, and her methods have given new ways to discover causal relationships in her field. Duflo is co-author of two books, Poor Economics and Good Economics for Hard Times, and was founding editor of the American Economic Journal. She also writes a regular column for French national newspaper, Libération.
Slavoj Žižek infamously said “Humanity is OK, but 99% of people are boring idiots” - Žižek himself is certainly neither boring nor an idiot. Žižek is arguably the leading celebrity philosopher of our times. Foreign Policy named Žižek a Top 100 Global Thinker "for giving voice to an era of absurdity”. With never a dull moment, Žižek breathes new life into Marxism, Hegel, psychoanalysis, philosophy, politics, film and culture. A philosopher not to miss.
“Few thinkers illustrate the contradictions of contemporary capitalism better than the Slovenian philosopher and cultural theorist Slavoj Žižek.” -John Gray
“There is something inexplicably touching about all Žižek's mischievous bombast” - The Guardian
“I have been deemed to be a heretic, not just by Muslims… but by some Western liberals as well”
Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a Somali-born classical liberal. A free speech advocate. An activist for the rights of women and girls. A public intellectual with a powerful voice. A former Muslim who rejected the faith and became an atheist, and has since been a vocal critic of both Islam and the woke left. She has written best-selling several books including Infidel (2007); Nomad (2010); Heretic (2015); and The Challenge of Dawa (2017) and her book Prey came out this year.
“An unflinching advocate of women's rights and an unflinching critic of Islamic extremism." - The New York Times
“Utopias offer no ready-made answers, let alone solutions. But they do ask the right questions”
Rutger Bregman is a historian and author, known for his advocacy of universal basic income, a fifteen hour work week and open borders. His books Humankind (2020) and Utopia for Realists (2017) were both New York Times Bestsellers, and have been translated in more than 40 languages. Rutger made headlines when he appeared at the World Economic Forum in Davos, and use the opportunity to call out the super-rich audience for tax avoidance.
Rutger is also well known for an incident in which he was invited on the staunchly conservative and highly popular Fox News talk show Tucker Carlson Tonight, and used the opportunity to accuse Tucker and the other Fox News anchors as being "millionaires paid by billionaires", a reference to the Murdochs and the Koch brothers, to scapegoat immigrants instead of discussing tax avoidance. Tucker became enraged, called him a "tiny-brained moron", and the interview was not aired by Fox.
“The Dutch wunderkind of new ideas” - The Guardian
“All you are is a bag of particles acting out the laws of physics. That to me is pretty clear.”
Brian Greene, professor of physics and mathematics, is renowned for his groundbreaking discoveries in superstring theory, including the co-discovery of mirror symmetry and of spatial topology change. He is known to the public through his books, The Elegant Universe, The Fabric of the Cosmos, and The Hidden Reality, which have collectively spent 65 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list and sold more than 2 million copies worldwide. He has also featured on TV a great deal including being on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert.
“The single best explainer of abstruse concepts in the world today.” - The Washington Post
Sophie Fiennes is an English film director and producer. Fiennes' documentary The Pervert's Guide to Cinema, is written and presented by the philosopher and psychoanalyst Slavoj Žižek. Sophie is from an extremely creative family; brothers Ralph (Harry Potter, The Dig) and Joseph (The Handmaid’s Tale) are both actors, and sister Martha is a film director - with her work being the most creative and challenging of the lot!
“Presents [a] thrilling challenge for cinema-goers” - The Guardian
Susie Orbach is UK’s most influential and beloved psychotherapist. Her debut book Fat is a Feminist Issue took the world by storm, as one of the first attempts to analyse the social and psychological pressure that leads women to disordered eating.
Throughout her career, Susie has been consultant to Unilever, the NHS, the World Bank, was co-founder of the hugely popular Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, wrote a column for the Guardian for 10 years and still found the time to be therapist to Princess Diana in the 1990s. Recently, she remains a therapist at her well known practice in London, is a visiting Professor at the London School of Economics and appears frequently on BBC Radio 4 in shows such as Women’s Hour, Start the Week and The Listening Project.
“Virtually all feminist debate on body image and beauty imagery owes its existence to Susie Orbach” – Naomi Wolff
“Very few people get the chance to make mega discoveries, and it's thrilling that mine opened up a whole new area of astrophysics.”
Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell revolutionised astronomy when she discovered pulsars as a graduate student. The world-shifting discovery was awarded the 1974 Nobel prize but, controversially, only her male supervisor and colleague were named in the award. In the face of entrenched sexism, Dame Bell Burnell has since been a pioneer for women in science. The field of astrophysics has benefited from her leadership for decades: she was the first woman president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and she has also served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Institute of Physics.
In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, in long overdue recognition of her work on pulsars. Dame Bell Burnell donated the whole of the $3 million prize money to help female, minority, and refugee students seeking to become physics researchers.
“The world needs more scientists like her.” – The Guardian
“The joy of political philosophy is that it continues to be a very lively area of debate and thought.”
Jesse Norman is a British Conservative Party politician, serving as Financial Secretary to the Treasury since 2019. Jesse is the philosopher of the Conservative party, and in his spare time is a biographer of Adam Smith and Edmund Burke. His book Compassionate Conservatism has been described as the "handbook to Cameronism" and paints a picture of the Tory’s far away from being the ‘nasty party’.
"We all made art as children and we all had opinions on it. Then somehow we grew up and risked becoming ‘outsiders’ to something we all have an innate ability to appreciate and love."
Kate Bryan is an art historian, curator and broadcaster, revolutionising the way we see and talk about art. She fiercely defends access to art in her work, for people from all backgrounds. Moreover, she is a passionate mentor for women in the arts, and has highlighted gender disparity through her gallery curation. In 2016, Bryan reversed the the FTSE 100 CEO gender ratio,acquiring the work of 93 women and 7 men for the Vault 100 art collection at The Ned London.
"An example of the BBC at its best." - The Times, on Bryant's 'The Story of the Nude'
“Science is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition.”
Patricia Churchland is a the distinguished founder of neurophilosophy. A pioneer of eliminative materialism, Patricia heralds a radically different way to understand the brain, arguing that ideas like pure morality and reason will eventually be abandoned in favour of a purely scientific view of the human mind. She has researched and published on many topics related to the mind and brain, recently focusing on the evolutionary and neurological origins of our inherent sense of morality. She argues the mind-body problem is not one that will be solved by philosophers but by neuroscientists; though our current knowledge of the mind is currently so elementary that even if a solution were to present itself, it’s likely we would not understand it.
Patricia is the UC President's Professor of Philosophy Emerita at the University of California, a board-member of Moscow State University, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Fellow of the Cognitive Science Society. Her recent books include Conscience: The Origins of Moral Intuition and Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality.
"No one blends philosophy and neuroscience as well as Patricia S. Churchland." - Frans de Waal
"The woke revolution is not about ending oppression. It is about turning the tables of oppression. And it cares not at all about who gets caught in the crossfire."
Evolutionary biologist and professor in exile, Bret Weinstein is known for being audacious, tenacious and voracious. Gaining notoriety in the Evergreen State College Protests for calling out the dangers of wokism on campus, Bret eventually left his post there. A member of the intellectual dark web, Bret was recently called a ‘spicy white’ in a now notorious Clubhouse brawl where he stated his ethnicity as Jewish. His frequent collaborators include Sam Harris, Joe Rogan and Jordan Peterson, and he hosts the chart topping Dark Horse podcast, which gets the voices of the intellectual dark web heard. His latest book, A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century, co-authored with Heather Heying, will be out this September.
"a calm voice of reason amongst all the sound and fury" – the Spectator
“How can we ask the question ‘how did the universe begin, without first having a pool of many possible universes, with many possible initial conditions, to choose from?”
Laura Mersini-Houghton is a cosmologist, theoretical physicist and Professor at the University of North Carolina, whose work focuses on the birth of our universe. A proponent of the multiverse theory, her theories have been successfully backed up by empricial, astrophysical data. She appeared on the BBC programme What Happened Before the Big Bang alongside Michio Kaku, Neil Turok, Roger Penrose and Lee Smolin.
“A truly skeptical position would be a very uncertain one.”
Rupert Sheldrake is a biologist, author and parapsychology researcher, best known for his hypothesis of morphic resonance. He is a critic of New Atheism, and has also challenged the idea that the laws of nature are fixed and unchanging. From 2005 to 2010, Rupert was Director of the Perrott-Warrick project for research on unexplained human and animal abilities, funded by Trinity College, Cambridge. Rupert has sole authored 9 books, including 'A New Science of Life' and 'The Science Delusion' and is famous for the controversial, viral TED talk he gave which was banned by the organisation.
"Sheldrake is an excellent scientist; the proper, imaginative kind that in an earlier age discovered continents and mirrored the world in sonnets." - New Scientist
“There is much more to life than what gets measured in accounts. Even economists know that.”
Tim Harford AKA The Undercover Economist AKA The Data Detective is a leading economist, journalist and broadcaster. Tim reveals the numbers behind our lives, and is one of the best popularisers of modern economics in the world. You may have heard him presenting BBC Radio 4’s “More or Less”, read him in the Financial Times, or hosting the Cautionary Tales Podcast... but every time Tim is in front of an audience he makes money and numbers make sense.
"Nobody makes the statistics of everyday life more fascinating and enjoyable than Tim Harford" - Bill Bryson
‘The crux of how a paradigm shift occurs is that the consensus as to what is acceptable changes.’
Linda Yueh is an incredibly prolific economist, writer and broadcaster. An Economics fellow Oxford University, Yueh is also Adjunct Professor of Economics at London Business School. As well as being on the board of a number of FTSE 100 companies and various trusts, Linda advises the UK Board of Trade and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.
Yueh has written and edited many books. Her latest The Great Economists: How Their Ideas Can Help Us Today was one of the The Times's Best Business Books of the Year and one of U.S. Newsweek's Best Books of the Year. As a TV and radio presenter, Yueh was Chief Business Correspondent for BBC News and the presenter of Talking Business with Linda Yueh.
‘One of the world’s leading economic experts.’ - Royal Society of Arts
Güneş Taylor is a training fellow at the Francis Crick Institute, the London-based biomedical research centre. Her research predominantly focuses on the the genetic formation of ovaries and testes. Güneş has debated the implications of genome editing in forums such as Fertility Fest, the Festival of Genomics, and Virtual Futures, as well as on the Guardian's podcast Science Weekly. In 2018, Güneş was awarded the Crick Public Engagement Prize for her efforts in the public communication of science
"Brains come in different types and they're all normal."
Simon Baron-Cohen's lifelong work on autism has revolutionised the world of experimental psychology. As part of his empathizing-systemizing theory, Simon famously claimed that autism is an extreme of the male brain. His new book The Pattern Seekers: How autism drives human invention presents dramatic evidence that autistic people and hyper-systemizers – those who can effortlessly analyse the patterns in systems to invent – share some of the same genes. Simon is professor of psychopathology at Cambridge University, is a Fellow of Trinity College and is the Director of Cambridge's Autism Research Centre. He gave a keynote speech to the United Nations on Autism and Human Rights.
"Mind is the craft of applying itself to itself. The history of the mind is therefore quite starkly the history of artificialization."
Reza Negarestani is an Iranian philosopher and writer. Reza's usual output is innovative, challenging philosophy, including his latest work Intelligence and Spirit, an examination of the meaning of intelligence at the intersection of German Idealism, philosophy of mind and research on artificial general intelligence. Reza also writes theory-fiction, a genre he's been credited as pioneering, including Cyclonopedia and the recently released Chronosis, a unique exploration of art, theoretical physics and new philosophical concepts through the comic medium. Reza looks at rationalist universalism, beginning with the evolution of the modern system of knowledge and advancing toward contemporary philosophies of rationalism. He has contributed extensively to journals and anthologies and directs the critical philosophy programme at The New Centre for Research & Practice.
"Reza Negarestani is a hyperstition: a fiction who made himself real." Matt Colquhoun
“TV and radio debates seem inflamed, with all that shouting, but real disagreement is always avoided; they conceal their lack of content.”
Claire Fox has a mixed political past. A lifelong Eurosceptic, she was previously a member of the Revolutionary Communist Party but later began identifying as a libertarian. She became a registered supporter of the Brexit Party shortly after its formation and was elected as an MEP in the 2019 European Parliament election. Following this, she was nominated for a peerage in the House of Lords by the Boris Johnson-led Conservative government in 2020 despite her past opposition to the very existence of the House of Lords.
A British writer, journalist, lecturer and politician, she is the director and founder of the right-wing think tank Institute of Ideas - not to be confused with the Institute of Art and Ideas!
"A mixture of intelligence and forthright argument" - The Observer
"Society will need to shed some of its obsession for causality in exchange for simple correlations: not knowing why but only what."
Kenneth Cukier is the Senior Editor for The Economist, co-authored the New York Times bestseller “Big Data” which has been translated into 20 languages, and is the editor and host of the hugely popular technology podcast Babbage. Now a director at Chatham House and an Associate Fellow at Oxford’s Said Business School, Kenneth was also a fellow at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.
An internationally respected journalist, Kenneth was the technology editor of the Wall Street Journal and has written for The New York Times, The Financial Times, the International Herald Tribune and Foreign Affairs.
‘One of the world’s most respected data experts’ - The LSE
“When you see what you're here for, the world begins to mirror your purpose in a magical way...you suddenly find yourself on a stage in a play that was written expressly for you.”
Betty Sue Flowers pioneered the modern, psychological appreciation of ancient myths alongside the esteemed Joseph Campbell - whose work was famously the inspiration for the Star Wars franchise.
A pre-cursor to today’s infamous, myth-interpreter Jordan Peterson and expanding on the work of Carl Jung, Betty Sue explores in her work what influence these stories have on our lives today. Betty Sue edited the book and acted as a consultant to the 1988 documentary, The Power of Myth, a series of interviews between Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers, which explored the universality and evolution of myths in the history of the human race and the place of myths in modern society.
"Illness can actually invite you to be more reflective." OR "Philosophers try to understand what makes us the way we are; what is essential to our being qua humans; what are accidental or arbitrary features."
Havi Carel is Professor of Philosophy and an expert on experiences of illness. At 35, she was told she had 10 years to live, diagnosed with an incredibly rare respiratory disease. This experience turned philosophy into a discipline of immediate practical concern for her, rather than an abstract theoretical enterprise. She has since worked closely with the NHS to provide a 'philosophical tool-kit for patients'. In Carel's work, philosophy is returned to an essential art of living.
“If all goes well, human history is just beginning”
Toby Ord is a philosopher who puts his money where his mouth is. He is the spearhead of both the effective altruism movement and the existential risk space. As part of his altruistic work he founded ‘Giving What We Can’, an international’s organisation who’s members all donate 10% of their total income to good causes, which boasts members such as Sam Harris and Peter Singer.
Toby is a Professor of Philosophy at Oxford University, whose work focuses on the biggest questions facing us. His most recent bestseller The Precipice combines his expertise on risk, catastrophe and morality and serves as an existential guide book to anyone concerned about the impending end of humanity.
Toby is a philosopher committed to putting ideas into action; he has advised the US National Intelligence Council, the UK Prime Minister's Office, and the World Bank on the biggest questions facing humanity.
“One begins to wonder if all the most interesting problems in physics are now in biology.”
Nick Lane is Professor of Evolutionary Biochemistry in the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London. His research focuses on the way that energy flow has shaped evolution over 4 billion years, using a mixture of theoretical and experimental work to address the origin of life, the evolution of complex cells and downright peculiar behaviour such as sex. He was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for Mitochondrial Research, and is Co-Director of the UCL Centre for Life’s Origin and Evolution (CLOE). He is the author of four acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have sold more than 150,000 copies worldwide.
“He is an original researcher and thinker and a passionate and stylish populariser. His theories are ingenious, breathtaking in scope, and challenging in every sense… what Lane is proposing, if correct, will be as important as the Copernican revolution.” – The Guardian
"I have managed to infuriate the bank bosses; acquire a fatwa from the revolutionary guards of the trades union movement; frighten the 'Daily Telegraph' with a progressive graduate payment; and upset very rich people who are trying to dodge British taxes. I must be doing something right."
Sir Vince Cable is a British politician who previously served as Leader of the Liberal Democrats. Politically active since the 1970s, Vince’s allegiances lay with Labour until the eighties. Considered by the Financial Times as part of a "coalition of anti-capitalists" due to his opposition to foreign takeovers of British companies, Vince has actually written prolifically in favour of globalisation and free trade. His wide-reaching appeal has led even the highly critical and cynical satirist Ian Hislop to say that if he was forced at gunpoint to stand for a party, he would stand for the fictional "Vince Cable for Treasurer Party."
Outside of the political sphere, Vince is a keen dancer, having performed a very respectable foxtrot on Strictly Come Dancing in the 2010 Christmas special. He made his literary debut in 2017 with Open Arms, about the secretive love life of a Tory MP “on business” in Mumbai.
"The most popular politician in Britain." - The Economist
“Numerous experiments showed that people feel depressed when they fail to live up to their own ideals”
Lisa Feldman Barrett is among the top one percent most cited scientists in the world for her revolutionary research into psychology and neuroscience. If you want to understand the brain or your emotions, she is the person for you. She is author of the best-selling books ‘Seven and a Half Lessons about the Brain’ and ‘How Emotions are made’ and has also given a popular TED talk with over 6 million views.
“Radical and fascinating ... defends a bold new vision of the most central aspects of human nature.” - Paul Bloom
"Is there anything science should not try to explain? Science is knowledge and knowledge is power – power to do good or evil. Sometimes ignorance is bliss."
Paul Davies is a world-renowned physicist and best-selling author. He works on on the “big questions” of existence, ranging from the origin of the universe to the origin of life, from the nature of time to foundational questions in quantum mechanics. He was pivotal in creating the theory of quantum fields in curved spacetime and was a forerunner of the theory that life on Earth may have come from Mars. He has twice debated scientific topics with the Dalai Lama and is the recipient of the highly presitigous Templeton Prize for his work on the deeper implications of science.
"One of the most prominent science communicators of our time" - FT
"It would be arrogant to think we're alone in the universe"
Avi Loeb is Professor of Science at Harvard University, working primarily in astrophysics and cosmology. A New-York Times bestselling author, he consistently makes headlines for advocating that the search for intelligent extraterrestrial life should be mainstream science. The only reason it isn't, he maintains, is unscientific prejudice.
Loeb has been the longest serving Chair of Harvard's Department of Astronomy (2011-2020), the Founding Director of Harvard's Black Hole Initiative (2016-2021) and the Director of the Institute for Theory and Computation (2007-present) within the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics .
"Avi Loeb is no stranger to controversy." - Scientific American
‘Scientific progress is an optimistic snowball, gathering the structure of reality as it rolls.’
Amanda Gefter is a brilliant writer specializing in fundamental physics, cosmology, cognitive science and philosophy. Her latest book, Trespassing on Einstein's Lawn, a memoir of family bonding and cutting-edge physics. Amanda is a consultant for New Scientist magazine, and founder of their CultureLab.
Previously a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at MIT, Amanda’s ideas have been featured in The New York Times, Nautilus, New Scientist, Scientific American, and many more. She also co-hosts BookLab, a podcast about popular science books, with science journalist Dan Falk. ‘What Gefter discovered about the new frontier of quantum cosmology...is astonishing and awesome.’ - Kirkus
“Time is a big invisible thing that will kill you”
Craig Callender is a Professor of Philosophy and Founding Faculty and Co-Director of the Institute for Practical Ethics. Craig is the leading expert on the philosophy of time. His work exploring everything from quantum mechanics to the metaphysics of time and even time travel!
“Wit and flair” - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
“While the idea of equal time for opposing opinions makes sense in a two-party political system, it does not work for science, because science is not about opinion. It is about evidence.”
Naomi Oreskes is a world-renowned geologist and historian of science, who is known for proving and popularising the fact that the scientific consensus on climate change is settled. Her best-selling book, Merchants of Doubt was praised – and attacked – around the world for its shocking exposé of the misinformation campaigns run by a scientific elite, on issues from tobacco smoke to global warming. She is a world-leading expert on forms of climate denialism and fiercely defends the importance of science-informed policy. Her 2019 book, Why Trust Science?, responds to a troubling ‘post-truth’ world, arguing that it is the social character of scientific knowledge which makes it trustworthy.
“Anyone concerned about the state of democracy in America should read this book.” – Al Gore, on Merchants of Doubt
“If people's lives are to improve, partnership within and across sectors are a must.”
Paul Farmer has been Chief Executive of the leading mental health charity, ‘Mind’, since May 2006 - making him an expert on what can be practically done to help the mental health of our culture and the individuals in it. Paul is also Chair of the NHS England Independent Oversight and Advisory Group which brings together health and care leaders and experts to oversee the current mental health long term plan for the NHS in England. Paul was awarded a CBE in the New Year’s Honours 2016.
‘We would do well to remind ourselves of the tragic, titanic struggle which China waged...against some of the darkest forces that history has ever produced.’
As a professor Chinese history and politics at Oxford University and a Fellow of the British Academy, Rana Mitter has been awarded an OBE for his services to education. Rana is a regular presenter of Radio 3’s Night Waves and is a prolific writer for the Financial Times, the Guardian, the Telegraph, History Today, and the London Review of Books.
Rana is an expert on the emergence of nationalism in modern China and has written many books on the subject. His latest, China’s Good War, looks at how the memory of WWII has formed Chinese national identity today.
"Breathtaking and authoritative" - Daily Telegraph
“It’s not just that women aren’t being listened to enough, it’s that their voices aren’t being heard in the first place.”
Mary Ann Sieghart is a journalist and radio presenter. A former assistant editor of The Times, Mary Ann is chair of the Social Market Foundation - a think tank for fairer markets and open public services. Mary Ann has also written for The Independent, The Economist and the Financial Times and was the presenter of Start the Week, Beyond Westminster and many other one-off documentaries.
Currently a Visiting Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, Mary Ann is researching why women are accorded less authority than men. She also is a Trustee and Chair for The Scott Trust (owener of The Guardian and The Observer) and a non-executive director for two large FTSE investment trusts. In 2018, she was named as one of the Female FTSE 100 Women to Watch.
“I think there is a vast myth that scientists are somehow objective and honest.”
Terence Kealy is a libertarian biochemist, advisor to Thatcher and outspoken critic of the public funding of science.
Through his research as a clinical biochemist, Kealey has experienced first-hand how distorting government money can be to the scientific enterprise, arguing that only privately funded research leads to real economic benefit. He advised Margaret Thatcher against public investment in science and, and controversially denies the idea that science is a public good. Kealey occasionally writes for The Telegraph and he has written several books to disillusion us of our collective fantasy that science is an objective and democratic institution.
“A fascinating book, whether you agree with it or not.” – The Guardian, on Kealey’s Sex, Science & Profits
“Nihilism is not an existential quandary but a speculative opportunity.”
Ray Brassier is a philosopher at the American University of Beirut, associated with contemporary philosophies of pessimism and nihilism. Ray is one of the four original founders of the philosophy of speculative realism, a term that he coined himself, though he has disputed the existence of such a movement. Ray is the author of Nihil Unbound, in which he argues that philosophy has been traditonally overconcerned with defending the possibility of meaning, and should instead be utilised to push nihilism to it's ultimate conclusion. Ray is also known for his translations of Alain Badiou, Jean-Luc Nancy and Quentin Meillassoux.